Cultivar -Refers to the variety of a plant, but is a product of intentional breeding. True variety is the product of accidental crossing.
Heirloom – Also called “Heritage”, these plants have been passed down through generations. Usually have unique characteristics that each zone or family desired. True heirlooms have no contamination with commercial varieties. “Family Heirlooms” have remained within families for generations. Other types exist from natural cross-pollination (Commercial Heirloom/Mystery) or intentional crossing (Created).
Open-pollinated – Seeds from open-pollinated varieties produce plants and fruit that are identical to their parent. (Note: All heirloom varieties are open-pollinated but not all open-pollinated varieties are heirloom varieties.)
Colors: Red, Yellow, Orange, Ping, Purple, Black, White, Green, Bi-Color
Cotyledons – The first leaves formed from the seed.
Crack Resistant -tomatoes that resist cracking – usually caused by rain.
Determinate: Smaller bush; needs no staking. Grows a limited amount of fruit and stops growing once first fruit is set. First to grow fruit; faster harvest.
Antibiotic diseases result from a genetic condition or growing environment. They include: Blossom End Rot, BER, dry brown patch at the bottom of the fruit. Causes of stress vary. Internal blossom end rot is rare. BET is often caused from the lack of calcium update. Common in early part of the season. Catfacing appears when pollination occurs during cool weather and shows up as abnormal scarring and shaping. Concentric Cracking are concentric rings of split tissue around the fruit’s stem end, and is genetic. Not a good variety to continue with. Green Shoulders is genetic. The upper part of the tomato remains green or red streaked with green while the rest of the fruit is ripe. Longitudinal Cracking are splits that run trom the top to the bottom of the fruit. It is caused by rain or over-watering. Curly Leaves: a common problem often occurring from genes in the tomato (wilty gene). Temperature conditions such as too hot or cold, or too wet or too dry can cause curl, as can sudden weather changes. Sunscald results when the fruit sunburns due to inadequate foliar coverage. The fruit develops thin skin that is white, sort of blistered looking and is kind of shiny.
Foliage diseases are found mostly on tomatoes – early blight, bacterial speck, septoria leaf spot, late blight and gray leaf speck. Of these, only late blight is quickly fatal. The others will defoliate a plant but can be survived.
Regular Leaf (RL) standard tomato foliage – a dominant trait.
Potato Leaf (PL) tomato foliage that resembles a potato plant, a recessive trait.
Rugose Leaves are puckered. Potato and Rugose leaved varieties exhibit better resistance to foliar diseases than regular leaved varieties.
Systemic Disease: those that infect/affect the entire plant. These are the most serious. Better known systemic diseases: fusarian wilt, nematode infestation (soil), mosaic virus (tobacco), verticillium wilt.
Indeterminate: Vine-like growth; needs staking or cages. Continues to grow and produce blossoms and fruit. Long harvest time. Can grow very tall. Higher yields.
Locules -This is the little “chamber” area that contains the seeds. Smaller tomatoes have less chambers while the larger varieties have more.
Oblate – A slightly flattened round shape of a tomato.